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Trace elements

You only need a tiny amount – but trace elements play a crucial role in staying healthy and being productive. To keep our bodies in good shape, we need the best possible diet. Food supplements should not be used as a replacement for a well-balanced and diversified diet, so always be sure to eat a variety of nutrient-dense foods. But how to apply that in your everyday life? Changes in our diet with developing preference towards a clean diet and away from nutritionally deprived junk food is a fact.*

Don’t let suboptimal nutrition rob you of the best health. Micronutrients, including trace elements, play a vital role. A regular intake of essential minerals and healthy food is of immense significance to health. Although you only need to consume a small amount. Trace minerals are necessary for a variety of biochemical reactions to take place. They are essential for our body and many vital biochemical reactions in it: they are cofactors in enzymatic systems and help stabilize cellular structures. Each mineral provides a unique benefit, and some supplements can help you get enough vital substances to ensure more balanced nutrition. Indeed, supplementation for particular groups of people (elderly, vegans, athletes, etc.  ) can prove massively beneficial to their health.*

Micronutrient deficiencies are often difficult to identify. The lack of any of the trace elements may be apparent as a combination of various clinical manifestations rather than a specific presentation. This is because each trace element is related to many enzyme systems.*

During the last decades, knowledge about the importance of trace elements in humans has emerged. The scientific testing of oral supplementation in high-quality products has brought widespread acceptance of these products.*

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3-Salt Zinc
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Biogena fit@work premium
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Premium mixture of vitamins, minerals and ubiquinol as a daily supplement in times of increased stress.**
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Mucosa Smart Gut Formula
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With the amino acid L-glutamine, high-quality plant extracts and selected micronutrients to support gut and intestinal mucosa**
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Nutrition experts have divided micronutrients into two groups: 

1) Six major minerals: calcium, magnesium, and potassium, chloride, phosphorus, and sodium,

2) Trace minerals: iron, zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, fluoride, iodine, manganese, cobalt, and molybdenum.

 

More details about trace elements:

Copper

Copper is the third most abundant trace element in the human body. It is present in almost every tissue of the body and is stored mainly in the liver, brain, heart, kidney, muscles. It is transported in the form of ceruloplasmin into the plasma where its metabolism is controlled and is excreted in bile.

Copper is involved in cell metabolism, and it is a component of antioxidant reactions. It is a part of various enzymes such as tyrosinase, uricase, cytochrome c oxidase, superoxide dismutase which are mainly concerned with an oxidation reaction.*

The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase, comprising copper and iron, plays a vital role in energy production during aerobic respiration. Copper is also a component of lysyl oxidase necessary for the synthesis of collagen and elastin. Copper is also essential for maintaining the strength of the skin, hair, blood vessels, and epithelial and connective tissue throughout the body.*

It is required for normal metabolism of iron – in the production of haemoglobin. Ceruloplasmin catalyzes the oxidation of iron. Copper is found in organ meats, shellfish, oysters, beans, nuts, seeds, cocoa, dried fruit, and yeast.

When supplementing copper always consider the interaction with zinc intake! Copper interferes with the mucosal absorption of zinc.

 

Zinc

Zinc is the second most abundant transition metal in the organism, and it appears in all enzyme classes.

Zinc is a significant component of our immune system. It plays a substantial part in wound healing and is necessary for the white blood cells. Zinc plays a vital role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolic activity of the cell. It is essential in the growth period for the development of children and is needed for the sense of taste and the sense of smell. Zinc is a cofactor for an enzyme called superoxide dismutase – a natural antioxidant of the body.*

It is found in meats, oysters, fish, and milk. Cereals and nuts contain higher amounts of phytate; this restricts the zinc intake. The bioavailability of zinc in vegetables is low.

Excessive iron can reduce zinc absorption, and copper competes with zinc for absorption from the small intestine.  

 

Chromium

Chromium is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates. It enhances the effectiveness of insulin, the hormone that regulates glucose in the blood. This is the reason why chromium may help blood sugar control. Furthermore, chromium is essential for metabolism in general.*

Raised plasma levels can coexist with a negative balance.*

 

Fluoride

Fluoride is best known for keeping teeth healthy, and it plays a crucial part in further hard tissues of the body like bones. In conjunction with calcium, fluoride may stimulate osteoblastic activity. It is integrated into the bone matrix as fluorapatite. Fluoride helps to keep bones and teeth strong because it promotes the remineralization of those tissues.*    

The best source of fluoride is in tap water (fluoridated drinking water) some kinds of toothpaste are fluoridated for dental care as well.   A lesser extent is found in in foods: mainly in tea and seafood.

 

Iodine

Iodine plays an important role in the normal function of the thyroid gland and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 tetraiodothyronine) and (T3 triiodothyronine). It is also necessary for maintaining metabolic processes and in the functionality of the parathyroid glands.*

Iodine is particularly essential during formative years for general growth, metabolism, immune system function, heart, lungs, intestine, and overall well-being.*

In some areas in the world iodine deficiency was common, so a worldwide fortification of edible salt has been undertaken to offset the iodine deficiency. The primary source is table salt. Iodine is found naturally in seafood — small amounts in milk, vegetables, and cereals.*

Iron

You can find iron in vast quantities on earth, and it is available from meat and to a great extent from plants.

Iron is the most abundant essential trace element in the human body. It is necessary for healthy immune system function and normal cell growth. The total content of iron in the body is found in the blood, liver, bone marrow, and muscles in the form of heme. Iron in haemoglobin – the protein present in red blood cells - binds to oxygen from the lungs and delivers it to the rest of the tissues. It is absorbed from your diet in the gut (in case of depletion)and transported in the form of ferritin. Heme is a significant iron-containing substance. Homeostasis of iron maintains the iron levels in serum within a normal range by upregulation or downregulation of the absorption mechanism.*

Phytates and oxalates reduce iron absorption. Iron is absorbed from food when there is a need. When iron stores in the body are depleted, absorption is enhanced. Particular attention should be paid to women who lose iron regularly through menstruation. Iron-rich foods include meat, poultry, fish, legumes, and dark leafy greens.*

 

Manganese

Manganese is involved in the production process of enzymes in metabolizing carbohydrates, proteins, and fat. It is further needed in bone formation and wound healing.*

Manganese acts as an activator of enzymes and as a component of metalloenzymes. Manganese is also involved in some antioxidant activities such as superoxide dismutase. The largest tissue store of manganese is the bone.* 

Manganese's highest concentrations are in nuts, grains, cereals, and sweet potatoes.

 

Molybdenum

Molybdenum is a component of enzymes, functioning as a cofactor helping to break down amino acids. It plays an important part in protein synthesis in purine catabolism.*

It is found in a wide variety of plant foods, especially legumes and nuts, oats, barley, but the content depends on how much molybdenum is in the soil.

High Concentrations can reduce copper absorption.

 

Selenium

Selenium is an important component of antioxidant enzymes, like glutathione peroxidase. It helps to protect the cells in the body, and it plays a role in a healthy thyroid function and various cellular functions.*

Selenium is found in plant-based foods from selenium rich areas such as whole grains, seeds, and nuts. You can also often find it in seafood, liver, meat, and dairy products, however, this is not enough for our body.  

 

Cobalt

Cobalt is beneficial for humans, as it is part of Vitamin B12, which is essential to maintain human health. Cobalts deficiency is connected to a decreased availability of B12. It induces erythropoietin and blocks iodine uptake by the thyroid. It has a role to play in methionine metabolism where it controls the transfer of enzymes like homocysteine methyltransferase. It is also an activator for many enzymes and is involved in the production of genetic material. In diet you can find cobalt: in meat, liver, clams, oysters, fish, and milk – nuts, green leafy vegetables, cereals, oats all contain some cobalt.*

 

 

 

Trace elements, their RDI and RDA 

 

Trace element

Recommended daily intake (RDI)

Recommended dietary allowance (RDA)

Copper

2000 mcg  

Children: 14 to 18 years old: 890 mcg/day
Men and women aged 19 years and older: 900 mcg/day
Pregnancy: 1000 mcg/day
Lactation: 1300 mcg/day


Iron

18 mg

Boys 14 to 18 years old: 11 mg/day
Girls 14 to 18 years old: 15 mg/day 
Adults: 8 mg/day for men aged 19 and older and women aged 51 and older
Women 19 to 50 years old: 18 mg/day 
Pregnant women: 27 mg/day 
Lactating mothers: 10 mg/day


Zinc

15 mg

Girls 14 to 18 years old: 9 mg/day
Boys and men aged 14 and older: 11 mg/day
Women 19 years old and above: 8 mg/day
Pregnant women: 11 mg/day
Lactating women: 12 mg/day


Cobalt

6 mcg

Children over 14 years and adults: 2.4 mcg
Pregnant women: 2.6 mcg
Lactating mothers: 2.8 mcg


Chromium

120 mcg

Boys/Men 14 to 50 years old: 35 mcg
Men 51 years old and above: 30 mcg
Girls: 14 to 18 years old: 24 mcg
Women 19 to 50 years old: 25 mcg; 51 years old and above: 20 mcg
Pregnant women: 30 mcg
Lactating women: 45 mcg


Molybdenum

75 mcg

Children 14 to 18 years old: 43 mcg/day
Men/women aged 19 years and above: 45 mcg/day
Pregnancy and lactation: 50 mcg/day


Selenium

70 mcg

Adults and children over 14 years old: 55 mcg/day
Pregnant women: 60 mcg/day
Breastfeeding women: 70 mcg/day


Iodine

150 mcg

Children aged 14 and adults: 150 mcg/day 
Pregnant women: 209 mcg/day
Lactating mothers: 290 mcg/day


Fluorine

 

 

In drinking water: 0.5 to 0.8 mg

Children 14 to 18 years old: 3 mg
Men 19 years old and above: 4 mg
Women 14 years old and above (including pregnant or breastfeeding women): 3 mg

 

Trace elements play a significant role in our organisms, and they are essential for our body to function correctly. There is special homeostasis, a deficiency or abnormal level of trace elements which occurs due to insufficient trace element content in our diet. The human body has an elaborate system for managing and regulating the number of key trace metals circulating in the blood and stored in cells. A diet rich in antioxidants and essential minerals is indispensable for a healthy mind and body. Sometimes you have to manage an increased requirement. This leads to an individual trace element portrait. Supplementation makes sense for your health.*

Preventive medicine  is gaining more and more attention to empower people to lead healthier lives. It is important to understand the metabolism of trace elements: dietary availability, absorption, storage, biochemical activity, and excretion. This leads to a deeper understanding of the relationship between intake of trace elements and health and therefore leads to a healthier life.*

Manufacturers are required to produce dietary supplements in a quality manner and ensure the purity and accurate labeling of the product.

The dosages are very important; practitioners often use therapeutic dosages, higher than daily dietary requirements. Consult your physician before taking a product. The doctor-patient relationship can help to select the right product.

If you want to normalize the balance of micronutrients by supplements, take products of high quality. Make sure they are pure and hypoallergenic and look if they are research-based nutritional supplements.

You can take the first step to promote a healthy metabolism. Make provisions for your healthy aging, that's the way to keep your body well-balanced and in tune.*    

 

Literature:

Bhattacharya P. T. et al.: Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review, Scientifica (Cairo), 2016; 2016: 5464373

Schmidbauer C.: Mikronährstoff-Coach: Das große BIOGENA-Kompendium der Nährstoffe, Verlagshaus der Ärzte 2018

Mattmiller SA, et al. of inflammation by selenium and selenoproteins: impact on eicosanoid biosynthesis. J Nutr Sci. 2013

Stargrove M., Stargrove L.: Herb, Nutrient, and Drug Interactions, Mosby Elsevier, 2008

 

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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